Archive for the ‘Lecture Notes’ Category

Writing the introduction paragraph for Essay 3

December 3, 2018

Your ideas may change as you read more and think more about this topic. You can always revise your working thesis as you draft.

For an argument essay like Essay 3, your thesis usually will appear at the end of your introduction paragraph.

Your thesis should answer the central question of the assignment prompt:

Should the state of California pay compensation to people who have been wrongfully imprisoned?

But you might be asking yourself: How do I begin Essay 3? How do I get started?

Remember what we said in the beginning of the semester: that effective academic writing resides not just in stating your own ideas but in

1) listening closely to others around you
2) summarizing their positions in a way that they will recognize
3) responding with your own ideas in kind

Think of essay writing as entering a conversation: using what others say (or might say) as a launching pad or sounding board for your own thoughts.

You’ve read, for example, what these editorials have written about state compensation laws for wrongfully convicted persons (and what Stevenson has written about wrongful convictions and the criminal justice system) and you are entering that conversation, responding to what they have said.

So think of Essay 3 as a response to the arguments of others.

Many writers make this rhetorical move explicit in their writing with sentences like these:

Some argue that _______________________. According to this view, _______________________. My own view is that ______________. Though I acknowledge that _____________, I still maintain that _______________________.

These are rhetorical moves that allow you to engage in the kinds of critical thinking that you are required to do in this class and at the college level.

What’s also good about this move is that it eliminates the fear of the blank page: What am I going to say? How do I begin?

When you enter a conversation, that rhetorical move provides your opening move.

So if you’re stuck getting started, try using a template such as this:

In recent discussions of ____________________, a controversial issue is whether _____________________. While some argue that _________________, others contend that ________________.

Look at how this template works perfectly for Essay 3:

In recent discussions of criminal justice reform, a controversial issue is whether people wrongfully convicted should be financially compensated. While some argue that wrongfully convicted persons should not be paid restitution by the state and should not be able to bring lawsuits, others contend that states should enact better compensation laws and permit lawsuits for years or decades lost in prison.

This summary of what “they say” about this topic would by followed by your thesis.

Think of your introduction paragraph this way:


Incorporating opposing views in Essay 3

November 28, 2018

The key takeaway: When you consider and counter opposing arguments, you strengthen your own argument.

As we’ve discussed, you need to take a clear position on the topic (thesis).

But many writers forget about the next step, which is just as important: including and discussing opposing viewpoints and providing counterarguments.

You need to anticipate what objections your readers might have to your argument, and try to understand why they might object.

• Research Opposing Viewpoints

In the research phase, gathering evidence against your position will help you acknowledge or accommodate or refute counterarguments.

When you do research for Essay 3, don’t limit yourself to those articles that are sympathetic to your position; find sources that disagree with you.

Go into a database such as ProQuest and put in search terms as if you were arguing for the opposing point of view.
Take note of how the make their argument and their use of evidence.

When you find an article against your position, try to figure why they hold the positions they do. What evidence do they present? How do they interpret that evidence? Why might they disagree with your position?

• Incorporating Opposing Views into Essay 3

If the opposing view comes from another author, be sure to introduce the author and the point of view in a neutral way (meaning your language is not charged or biased).

Use words such as “argues,” or “suggests” or “claims” or “believes.”

You can quote directly from this counterargument or paraphrase the argument or point.

Remember, you can write concede a point when engaging with an opposing view.

“Of course, there is a point to be made that ___________.”

This is called a concession – you are conceding that the opposing view has some merit – but you can then go on to explain how the point still doesn’t change your position.

Present counterarguments to your thesis in ways that respect those who disagree. That will make your own argument stronger and more persuasive.

• You can also refute an opposing view, if you think that position is flawed or weak.

To refute a position, make sure that you first:

Introduce the view: Present the view accurately and fairly and maybe even concede that the view has some merit.

Object: Here you state why you object to this view (“However” or “Is this really true?”

Support for why you object: Here you support your objection with reasons or facts or stats or expert opinion from one of your sources.

• Where to address counterarguments in Essay 3?

There are several choices:

You could present your own argument first, and then present and counter an opposing view.

Intro + Thesis
First Body Paragraph
Second Body Paragraph
Third Body Paragraph
Opposing Argument

You could present the opposing view first, and then prove your argument is the more persuasive.

Or, you could alternate between your position and the opposing view.

Citing the most common sources in the “Works Cited” list

November 24, 2018

(The Purdue OWL Guide has a YouTube channel for videos on “MLA Formatting: The Basics” and “MLA Formatting: In-Text Citations” and “MLA Formatting: The Works Cited Page.”)

• MLA Works Cited: Books

The basic form for a book citation is:

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Date.

Book with One Author

Henley, Patricia. The Hummingbird House. MacMurray, 1999.

Book with More Than One Author

When a book has multiple authors, order the authors in the same way they are presented on the title page of the book.

The first given name appears in last name, first name format; subsequent author names appear in first name last name format.

Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Lerner. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring. Allyn and Bacon, 2000.

If there are three or more authors, list only the first author followed by the phrase et al. (Latin for “and others”) in place of the subsequent authors’ names. (Note that there is a period after “al” in “et al.” Also note that there is no period after the “et” in “et al.”).

Wysocki, Anne Frances, et al. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition. Utah State UP, 2004.

Two or More Books by the Same Author

You might have a situation where you use two works by the same author in an essay.

If so, list the works alphabetically by title. (Remember to omit articles like A, An, and The.) Provide the author’s name in last name, first name format for the first entry only.

For each subsequent entry by the same author, use three hyphens and a period.

Palmer, William J. Dickens and New Historicism. St. Martin’s, 1997.

—. The Films of the Eighties: A Social History. Southern Illinois UP,  1993.

Book by a Corporate Author or Organization

A corporate author may include a commission, a committee, a government agency, or a group that does not identify individual members on the title page.

List the names of corporate authors in the place where an author’s name typically appears at the beginning of the entry.

American Allergy Association. Allergies in Children. Random House, 1998.

Book with No Author

List by title of the book. Incorporate these entries alphabetically just as you would with works that include an author name.

Encyclopedia of Indiana. Somerset, 1993.

• MLA Works Cited: Periodicals in Print

Article in a Magazine

Cite by listing the article’s author, putting the title of the article in quotations marks, and italicizing the periodical title. Follow with the date of publication. Remember to abbreviate the month.

The basic format is as follows:

Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Periodical, Day Month Year, pages.

Poniewozik, James. “TV Makes a Too-Close Call.” Time, 20 Nov. 2000, pp. 70-71.

Article in a Newspaper

Cite a newspaper article as you would a magazine article, but note the different pagination in a newspaper.

Brubaker, Bill. “New Health Center Targets County’s Uninsured Patients.” Washington Post, 24 May 2007, p. B1.

Anonymous Articles

Cite the article title first, and finish the citation as you would any other for that kind of periodical.

”Business: Global Warming’s Boom Town; Tourism in Greenland.” The Economist, 26 May 2007, p. 82.

An Article in a Scholarly Journal

Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Journal, Volume number, Issue number, Year, pages.

Bagchi, Alak. “Conflicting Nationalisms.” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50.

• MLA Works Cited: Online Sources

An entire web site

Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number, Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available), URL or DOI. Date of access (if applicable).

The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2008, Accessed 20 Nov. 2018.

Article in an online magazine

Author Last Name, First Name. “Title of article.” Title of the web magazine, publisher name, publication date, URL. Date of access.

Article from a newspaper web site

Author Last Name, First Name. “Title of article.” Name of Web site. Sponsor/publisher of website, date of publication, URL. Date of access.

An Article in an Online Scholarly Journal

For all online scholarly journals, provide the author(s) name(s), the name of the article in quotation marks, the title of the publication in italics, all volume and issue numbers, and the year of publication and date that you access the source.

Include a URL, DOI, or permalink to help readers locate the source.

(DOI, or digital object identifier, is a series of digits and letters that leads to the location of an online source. Articles in journals are often assigned DOIs to ensure that the source is locatable, even if the URL changes, and the 8th ed. of the MLA guidelines now uses these in citations. If your source is listed with a DOI, use that instead of a URL.)

Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions.” Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal, vol. 6, no. 2, 2008, Accessed 20 May 2018.

An Article from an Online Database (or other Electronic Subscription Service)

Cite articles from online databases (e.g. LexisNexis, ProQuest, JSTOR, ScienceDirect) and other subscription services as containers. The word “container” is used by the MLA guidelines to simply mean the larger place in which the source is located.

So provide the title of the database italicized before the DOI or the URL. Provide the date of access.

Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century
England.” Historical Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest, doi:10.1017/S0018246X06005966. Accessed 27 May 2018.

Review: Basics of the “Works Cited” page

November 24, 2018

As the essay assignment explains, you must cite 3 scholarly sources and Stevenson’s book in your essay, so that means you need a total of at least 4 sources cited in your essay and then listed on your Works Cited list.

If you claim that thousands of people have been wrongfully convicted and imprisoned, you need to give your reader the exact number and the source of that number.

By proving an in-text citation of this type of evidence shows that you’ve done your research and that you can give your reader evidence to back up your claims.

This alphabetized list of works cited must appear at the end of your Essay 3.

Let’s review the “Works Cited” page:

Use “insert header” in your word processing software to place your last name and page number in the upper right corner.

Go to the Purdue OWL resource online for tips and a current overview of the MLA 8th Edition (a PDF of the guide is on the course web site).

The Purdue OWL web site: //

Click on “Research and Citation” then click on “MLA Style” then click on the link “MLA Formatting and Style Guide.”

Write a properly formatted list of all the sources you quote/paraphrase/summarize in your list of Works Cited.

If you are not citing a source in your paper, you don’t need to include it in this list.

Center the heading Works Cited at the top of the page (not italicized or underlined or bold or in quotation marks).

Double-space your list.

List entries alphabetically by the author’s last name – or by the first word (omit the article such as a or the) of the title if an author is not given.

Each entry should begin at the left-hand margin, with the other lines in the same entry indented one-half inch from the margin.

Remember to italicize all book and periodical titles (Just Mercy).

Put quotation marks around the title of articles (“Paying for Lost Years Behind Bars”).

Note: If you want to cite a chart or a table or a figure from one of your sources, you have two options:

One is to actually print the chart or table into your essay:

In-text reference example:

In 1985, women aged 65 and older were 59% more likely than men of the same age to reside in a nursing home, and though 11,700 less women of that age group were enrolled in 1999, men over the same time period ranged from 30,000 to 39,000 persons while women accounted for 49,000 to 61,500 (see table 1).

An easier, and acceptable, method is to cite the web page where you found the chart or table – for example, if you found a chart on the National Registry of Exonerations web site about current California laws on compensation.

Consider this as a page on a web site:

For an individual page on a Web site, list the author if known, or use the title of the article is there is no author. Follow this with the information about the web site: Name of web site, date of publication, URL.

“Athlete’s Foot – Topic Overview.” WebMD, 25 Sept. 2014,

So the in-text citation of this chart would look like this:

The National Registry of Exonerations provides current compensation laws in California: _________________ (“Compensation Statutes”).

The Works Cited entry for this in-text citation would be:

“Compensation Statutes.” National Registry of Exonerations, 21 May 2018,  CompensationByState_InnocenceProject.pdf.

If you wanted to cite a state law, simply name the statute law in your sentence. Legal documents are not required to be cited in a Works Cited page.

Do not italicize the titles of laws, acts, or similar political documents or put them in quotation marks. Capitalize them as you would any other source title.

For Essay 3:

California Penal Code Section 4900


California Senate Bill 618

I would recommend just citing the web page or the source where you found the reference to this current code, rather than trying to list the California state web site.

So you could, for example, cite the above web page if you want to cite this code number

The in-text citation would look like this:

(“Compensation Statutes”).

Basic features of an essay arguing a position (Essay 3)

November 6, 2018

What are the key elements of this type of essay?

• A well-presented issue

To inform readers about an issue’s seriousness and arouse readers’ concern, writers may

give examples or statistics that show how many people are affected by the issue and how they are affected

use scenarios or anecdotes that resonate with readers’ own experience and raise their concern

quote authorities or research to show that the issue deserves attention.

• A well-presented position

Are the statements asserted to be facts widely accepted as true and complete?

Are cited authorities or sources trustworthy?

• An effective counterargument

Does the writer respond to possible objections readers might raise?

Does the writer acknowledge other concerns or other points of view?

Does the writer concede an objection and modifying the argument?

Does the writer refute readers’ possible objections?

• A readable plan

Essays arguing a position need to explain the issue, provide a reasoned argument, and counter argue objections. To make sure their essays are easy to read, writers usually include the following:

a forecast of the argument

key words introduced in the thesis and a forecasting statement

topic sentences introducing paragraphs

repeated use of key words

clear transitional words and phrases

More tips for writing Essay 2

November 1, 2018

Make sure your introduction explains the author’s purpose in writing the book and how these rhetorical appeals help him achieve that purpose.

Is Stevenson’s purpose in writing the book to inform? To persuade? To raise awareness?

For your introduction, ask yourself: Why do writers use the appeals to logic, emotion, authority? Answer that question in your introduction.

It’s probably a good idea to define the appeal that you are discussing. What, exactly, is the appeal to logos? Pathos? Ethos?

In your body paragraphs, explain why the appeal to logic is important for his purpose?

Why is the appeal to emotions important for his purpose?

Why is it important for him to establish his experience or knowledge or credibility?

Indent body paragraphs 5 spaces.

Write a title that connects with the essay topic and prepares the reader for what your essay will cover.

Rhetorical Appeals in Just Mercy

Stevenson’s Appeals to the Emotions in Just Mercy

The use of ethos, pathos and logos in Just Mercy

Draft focused topic sentences that respond to the essay assignment topic and unify your body paragraphs. Your topic sentences for this essay should explain why the author uses that specific rhetorical appeal, and why the appeal is important for him to achieve his purpose in writing the book.

Use your topic sentences to move your reader from one idea to the next and one paragraph to the next.

Stevenson uses the appeal pathos in order to _______________.

In addition to pathos, Stevenson appeals to logos as a way to ___.

And finally, Stevenson also appeals to ethos to establish ________.

When you cite an example of the book, remember to give the passage a little set-up and context, so the reader understands what scene you are talking about. (Pretend your reader has not read the book – that’s a good rule of thumb for doing an effective analysis like this.)

And also, make sure that you analyze the example you discuss. Don’t get bogged down in summarizing what’s going on in the passage – try to explain the interaction between the author and the reader.

What emotions, for example, is the author trying to rouse in the readers?

Why does the author give a bunch of facts, stats, numbers in the book?

Why does he talk about his background or his training?

What impact does this material have on the reader?

In every body paragraph, explain to your reader how the appeal connects to Stevenson’s purpose in writing the book.

Use your conclusion paragraph to summarize what you’ve just discussed in terms of the author’s use of these appeals. Also, explain what the book would be like without these appeals.

Incorporating quotations into Essay 2

October 29, 2018

As your assignment hand-out explains, you need to cite at least three examples from the book to complete your rhetorical analysis.

This means you have to bring in examples and quotations from the book in your body paragraphs to support the thesis you are making about his use of rhetorical strategies.

Integrating the words or ideas from another source is a big part of academic writing, so this essay will help you develop that skill.

Careful integration of quotations also helps you avoid plagiarism – the use of another’s ideas or words without attribution.

But remember the rule here: Never introduce a quotation into your essays without first introducing the quote, citing it, and explaining it.

This means that you will never begin or end a body paragraph with a quotation.

Think of this formula: Introduce, Cite and Explain.


When introducing your quote, you need to provide the context of this quote as well as show the source of the quote.

In this assignment, you need to introduce the means of appeal or the rhetorical appeal that Stevenson uses in the passage you are about to discuss.

The quote cannot do the work for you; you must provide your reader with some idea of why you have chosen to use this quote.

You should also tell your reader who is speaking or where this quote came from in the book and the relationship this person or source has to the point you are making.


You need to provide in-text citations for all the references from the book that you use in your essay: (Stevenson 27).


Stevenson explains ________________ (27).


After the quote, explain the significance of the quotation. How might it relate to your thesis about Stevenson’s use of that rhetorical appeal?

It is your responsibility as the writer to interpret the quote for your reader and provide the significance.

Here’s a good formula to keep in mind when using quotations in your body paragraphs:

Introduce it: Before adding in your quotation, introduce it with a signal phrase and a reporting verb (argues, claims, suggests, points out)

Example: Stevenson points out that …

Quotation: After you have introduced your quotation with a signal phrase or reporting verb, integrate your quotation.

Example: Stevenson argues that our criminal justice system “traumatizes and victimizes people when we exercise our power to convict and condemn irresponsibly” (12).

Explain it: Now that you’ve integrated your quotation, explain why the quotation is important to your thesis.

What do you think the quotation means? How does it connect to your thesis about the author’s use of rhetorical appeals?

A good rule to remember: Your explanation should be at least as long, or longer, than the quotation itself.

If you include a quotation without any sort of introduction, your reader won’t understand how the quotation connects to your paragraph (even if it makes sense to you).

Below are some signal phrases and reporting verbs you can use to introduce your quotations (your Pocket Style Manual also has a list of these):

Signal Phrases

Stevenson explains that
Stevenson demonstrates this by
Stevenson acknowledges

Points out

Tips & strategies for writing Essay 2

October 29, 2018

• Introduction

If you’re stuck in how to get started writing Essay 2, look at page 2 of the essay assignment.

I give you some tips and ideas on how to brainstorm your introduction.

The introduction paragraph of a rhetorical analysis essay like Essay 2 should provide information about what you will be writing about.

Make sure that you introduce Stevenson and his book. (This is one of the criteria for evaluation I mention on the first page of the assignment.)

What is his purpose in writing the book, and how do appeals connect to that purpose?

You could begin your introduction by starting with a discussion about why and how writers use rhetorical appeals to achieve their purpose.

That you could lead you into your discussion of Stevenson’s book and his purpose and his use of rhetorical appeals.

Think of your introduction as an upside-down triangle:

The wider base at the beginning is your discussion of writers and why/how they use rhetorical appeals; and the tip of your triangle is your thesis about how Stevenson uses appeals in his book to achieve his purpose.

You should also mention in your introduction which appeals you will be discussing, and how successful Stevenson is in using those appeals to achieve his purpose (this is your thesis).

• Body paragraphs

Let’s review what we said last week about body paragraphs in Essay 2.

Write one paragraph on each of the rhetorical strategies and appeals that you mention in your introduction.

Keep this formula in mind:

1 appeal or means of persuasion=1paragraph

(Note: You can use the phrases “rhetorical appeal” or “means of persuasion” or “appeal to ethos” or “appeal to logos” or “appeal to pathos” in your essay.)

Keep this point in mind: All of your body paragraphs need to explain how Stevenson uses that appeal to the reader, and how these appeals connect back to his purpose in writing the book.

Remember our formula for effective body paragraphs – the word TEST:

Topic Sentence
Summary Statement

Topic Sentence: Unifies your paragraph

Remember, each paragraph in the body should have its own topic sentence.

For the topic sentence for this assignment, make sure that you explain the definition of the rhetorical strategy or appeal you are writing about.

You should write one paragraph on each of the rhetorical strategies and appeals that you mention in your introduction.

Use the questions I have provided to you in the essay assignment hand-out to help you focus your body paragraphs:

What is the definition of the rhetorical strategy or appeal you are writing about?

Writers use the appeal to pathos in order to …

The appeal to pathos is used by writers to …

What is your evaluation of Stevenson’s use of that appeal in regard to his purpose?

Stevenson’s appeal to ethos is effective in this chapter because …

How does the example in this paragraph illustrate the use of that strategy?

This moment in Chapter 2 illustrates how Stevenson appeals to …

How does this example contribute to Stevenson’s purpose?

In order to achieve this purpose, Stevenson uses the appeal to … in order to …

Evidence: Supports your paragraph’s topic sentence (an example of the appeal you are writing about)

You need to find concrete examples of Stevenson using this appeal in his book.

As I say in the criteria for evaluation, I’m looking for clear and specific evidence that he does use these means of persuasion.

How does the example in your body paragraph illustrate the use of that appeal?

Summary statement: (explaining why Stevenson uses that appeal)

How does this example contribute to his purpose? (Use the summary statement to link back to your thesis)

Transitions: (so you lead your reader smoothly from one example to the next)

In addition to using the appeal to emotions, Stevenson also uses the appeal to …

Another example of how Stevenson appeals to the emotions occurs in the first chapter …

• Do a close reading of each of your examples

Remember also that a rhetorical analysis assignment like Essay 2 requires you to do a close reading of the book – in other words, you must discuss the words and phrases that Stevenson uses to achieve his effects.

Find the definitions and stats that you are talking about and include them in your body paragraphs. This is the evidence I’m looking for.

You have to show how and why Stevenson uses the appeal and how that appeal connects to your topic sentence (and your thesis).

Or let’s say you wanted to discuss why Stevenson included the moment where Henry suddenly starts singing in the beginning of the book.

You could write something like: “Another example of Stevenson using the appeal to pathos occurs with the moment of Henry’s singing a hymn in the beginning of the book. This passage portrays Henry as a sad and lost man locked behind bars.”

But this wouldn’t be sufficient in terms of a rhetorical analysis of that page. This is more of a summary of that passage than an analysis of how the passage works.

What, exactly, does Stevenson say here about Henry and himself? What words or phrases does he use to convey the emotions of this scene?

How does the language Stevenson uses help him convey the emotions he wants his readers to feel?

What emotions is he trying to rouse in his reader?

And remember to finish this paragraph by explaining how it connects to Stevenson’s overall purpose:

If your thesis is that Stevenson uses the appeal to pathos to give a human dimension to the problems in the criminal justice system, you need to explain:

Why is that human dimension important for Stevenson’s purpose?

Essay 2 – The means of persuasion

October 24, 2018

As we’ve discussed, writers of argument use three means of persuasion – logos, pathos and ethos – to appeal to readers.

The degree to which a writer uses each of these appeals depends on the rhetorical situation (the writer, the writer’s purpose, the audience, the topic).

Let’s review the means of persuasion or rhetorical appeals you are writing about for Essay 2.


To appeal to your reader’s mind, you give reasons. If your reasons make sense and your examples and details are specific and clear, your logos will be convincing.

Logos is a Greek word for word, by which the Greeks meant “divine words,” meaning reason or the word of God. From logos comes our word logic. So an appeal to logos is an appeal to reason.

If you are writing about logos, here a questions to ask yourself as you read the book:

Where does Stevenson use reasons that make sense?

Is Stevenson’s argument reasonable and worth considering? How so?

Is his supporting evidence clear, specific and convincing?

Does he use accurate facts, statistics, examples, and details?


Pathos comes from the Greek word for “suffering”; we use it to mean appealing to the emotions. From pathos comes the word sympathy: to have appropriate feelings for another person’s emotions.

If you are writing about Stevenson’s use of pathos, here are some questions to consider:

What clues are in the book that Stevenson is appealing to your emotions? What words or phrases does he use to move readers?

What emotions do you think Stevenson is trying to rouse in his readers: sadness, fear, guilt, hope?

Is the pathos appropriate and used with restraint – not faked or exaggerated in order to manipulate the readers?


Ethos is the Greek word for “character.” From it we have the word ethics. When you say that a writer has good character, you imply that you approve of his or her morals or his or her sense of right and wrong; you share the values of the writer.

If you are writing about ethos, here are a few questions to consider:

What clues in the book make you believe that Stevenson is trustworthy, fair-minded and credible?

What authority does Stevenson have on this subject?

What is Stevenson’s attitude toward his topic (the American criminal justice system)? Serious? Sincere?

Remember: When writing about the appeal to ethos, don’t confuse the appeal with how characters behave in the book; the essay assignment is asking you how the author – Stevenson – uses the appeal to ethos to establish his credibility in the minds of his readers.

Essay 2 Thesis & Outline

October 24, 2018

For Monday, please turn in a typed, one-page document, properly formatted (a header with your name, my name, class name, date) and a running header on the upper right) that includes:

1) A thesis that states your main point: How Stevenson uses rhetorical appeals (or means of persuasion) to accomplish his purpose, and how successful he is in using these appeals.

(Note: You can focus just on the Introduction, or on Chapter One, or Chapter Two, or Chapter Three, or a mix of any of these.)

For example, you can write about how he uses ethos, pathos and logos.

Or you can just write about how he uses one means of persuasion (pathos, for example), and show three examples of how he uses that strategy in the book.

Note: You can use the term means of appeal or rhetorical appeals. Either one is acceptable. (The word appeal means how the author is trying to persuade or move or convince the reader.)

2) An outline of your body paragraphs:

Three or four bullet points (or topic sentences) that explain:

which rhetorical appeal each body paragraph will discuss

how the example illustrates Stevenson’s use of that appeal in the book

and how the appeals to the reader contribute to Stevenson’s purpose